SUICIDE AND SUICIDAL LAWS IN INDIA (by: Divya Mishra)

ABSTRACT

Suicide is a serious problem and it requires great mental and emotional support from others if normal public is not gonna accept it with open minds and more welcoming nature then we are never going to be able to cure this problem. There are so many factors which can lead a person to that edge where he attempts to kill himself. One of the biggest reasons is mental illness and it is very important to prevent suicidal behavior and make efforts to read these early warning signals. The rate of suicide attempts in India has been increased in this pandemic situation, people lost their jobs, many are stuck somewhere alone for months and the emotional and psychological factors of a pandemic leads to the risk of suicide by feelings of hopelessness. Many times there are situations in which suicide is preventable and there are so many helpline numbers and suicide prevention centers and institutes which can help to reduce the risk of taking your own life. India as a country should work in the direction of reducing the rate of suicides and should introduce more laws like the mental health care Act of 2017 and the great decision of decriminalizing section 309 of Indian penal code by Indian government is very appreciable and welcoming for mental health care. People should not talk about mental health and suicide prevention only on some days but we should work every day to prevent suicide.

KEYWORDS

  1. SUICIDE
  2. SUICIDAL LAWS
  3. MENTAL HEALTH
  4. PREVENTION
  5. HELPLINE
  6. ATTEMPTED SUICIDE
  7. DECRIMINALIZATION
  8. INDIA

PREFACE

India being the youngest and most developing nation still couldn’t satisfy the needs of so many people who are suffering on a daily basis. According to a survey conducted by a leading newspaper approximately 28 people commits suicide in a day. According to NCRB reports approximately 10,159 students committed suicide in 2018, 9905 in 2017 and 9,478 in 2016. Suicide rate is increasing with a pace but nobody to control it.

WHAT IS SUICIDE ? WHY DO PEOPLE COMMIT SUICIDE?

It is very difficult to imagine what led a person to take such a big step of committing suicide.there are so many factors which can combinaly lead a person to take their own life and there is nothing more horrifying than taking your own life and killing yourself. Even experts can’t fully understand the reasons why some people do this but there are some life circumstances and mental health issues which play a vital role.

  • Depression
  • Hopelessness
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Substance use disorder
  • Psychosis
  • Post- traumatic stress disorder

However mental health issues are not the only reasons which provoke people to commit suicide deep emotional pain and other factors like break-ups, trauma, bullying, abuse, exam fear, financial distress, loss of someone close etc. are also some factors which contributes a significant part in suicidal behaviour and risk of committing suicide.

SUICIDE RATES IN INDIA

In 2016 the quantity of suicides in India had expanded to 230,314. Self destruction was the most widely recognized reason for death in both the age gatherings of 15–29 years and 15–39 years. More than 800,000 people commit suicide worldwide every year and more than 20% population is from India. In only 2019 a 3.4% of increase was observed in suicide rates i.e 1,39,123 suicides as compared to 2018 and 2017.

As indicated by the measurements by the NCRB, which capacities under the Union Home Ministry, the self destruction rate in urban communities (13.9 percent) was higher when contrasted with the all-India self destruction rate (10.4 percent) in 2019. Self destruction by ”hanging” (53.6 percent), “devouring toxic substance” (25.8 percent), ”suffocating” (5.2 percent) and ”self-immolation” (3.8 percent) were the noticeable methods for submitting suicides during the year, the information appeared. Family issues (other than marriage-related issues) were behind 32.4 percent of suicides, marriage-related issues (5.5 percent) and ailment (17.1 percent) together represented 55 percent of the all out suicides in the nation during 2019, it expressed.

For each 100 self destruction passings, 70.2 were male and 29.8 females, the NCRB, which gathers information from police recorded cases, expressed. Almost 68.4 percent of the male casualties were hitched, while the proportion was 62.5 percent for female casualties, the information appeared. Dominant part of suicides were accounted for in Maharashtra (18,916), trailed by 13,493 in Tamil Nadu, 12,665 in West Bengal, 12,457 in Madhya Pradesh and 11,288 in Karnataka, representing 13.6 percent, 9.7 percent, 9.1 percent, 9 percent and 8.1 percent of all out such passings, individually. These five states together represented 49.5 percent of the all out suicides announced in the nation and the rest 50.5 percent suicides were accounted for in the staying 24 states and 7 UTs, the information appeared. Uttar Pradesh, the most crowded state, revealed a relatively lower rate of self-destructive passings, representing just 3.9 percent of the all out suicides in the nation, it included.

LAWS RELATED TO SUICIDE IN INDIA

Attempt to commit suicide is no more a crime under section 309 of IPC in india. Article 21 of the constitution states that to quote “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law”. Article 21 does talk about right to life but no article talks about “Right to die”.

Section 309 of indian penal code states that to quote “Whoever attempts to commit suicide and does any act towards the commission of such offence, shall he punished with simple imprisonment for a period which may extend to one year ”.

The Indian Penal Code had been defined during British Raj Regime of 1860, and was essentially administered by British law of that time. Incidentally, India keeps on observing the obsolete law despite the fact that Britain itself had decriminalized suicide route in 1961 and it took soo many years for india to decriminalise this law. But it’s better to be late than never so finally on may 29th a new mental health care act of 2017 was notified by the health ministry. The act states that to quote “Notwithstanding anything contained in Section 309 of the Indian Penal Code, any person who attempts to commit suicide shall be presumed, unless proved in any case to have extreme pressure and will not be attempted and rebuffed under the said Code”. now As per the new act of 2017 in any attempted suicide case government will have to provide rehabilitation, care, theraphy and treatment to the person who was trying to commit suicide to reduce the risk of recurrence of the same incident. The cost of rehabilitation and treatment would be free for the person in any government funded mental health institution. The act of 2017 defines mental illness and is trying to change the outlook of people for mental health issues. Pointed toward changing the psychological medical services system in the nation, it is instituted to fit India’s laws with the Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol.

“Every person has the right to live life with dignity….whether he has any mental illness or not”

The act of 2017 says that there shall be no discrimination with the mentally ill person on any basis including gender, caste, class, social and political beliefs, religion, culture etc. because these provisions tries to bring the mentally ill person at par with the physically ill in terms of healthcare. This act also encourages the right of mentally ill to live in, be a part of and not be segregated from the society. The Act of 2017 has been generally invited with the desire that with satisfactory mindfulness, it will guarantee the intellectually sick with the option to live with respect would build discussion about mental medical care and would help eliminate the disgrace related with psychological sickness.

WHAT HAPPENS AFTER THE SUICIDE?

Postvention is for individuals influenced by a person’s self destruction. This intercession encourages lamenting, advisers for diminish blame, nervousness, and melancholy and to diminish the impacts of injury. Loss is precluded and advanced for therapy and supporting their versatile limits before mediating sorrow and any mental issues. Postvention is likewise given to limit the danger of imitative or copycat suicides, however there is an absence of proof based standard convention. Be that as it may, the overall objective of the emotional wellness expert is to diminish the probability of others relating to the self-destructive conduct of the perished as an adapting methodology in managing difficulty.

SUICIDE PREVENTION

“it’s not weak to seek help” period!. Recently on september 10 world suicide prevention day was observed. It is an awareness day in order to prevent the attempt and commission of suicide. India as a country needs collection of efforts to reduce the risk of suicide. Many times suicide is preventable we just need to do the general efforts like social support and social engagement. Medication and counseling is also very helpful.It isn’t so much that our country isn’t doing the needful to battle this shocking circumstance. Indeed, it has been sorting out umpteen missions and setting up brief self destruction anticipation crews to help those out of luck. Notwithstanding that, there is consistently a helpline number for self-destructive contemplations or a helpline number for discouragement that one can call for help. Nonetheless, it won’t tackle the issue until we carry out our responsibility well, and that is the point at which we, as mindful residents of India, should assume responsibility for our lives and everyone around us. We just need to read the early warnings and contact the helpline numbers if this thought ever pops in your mind and just remember “YOU ARE WORTH SO MUCH DON’T LET ANYONE OR ANYTHING HAMPER YOUR PEACE OF MIND”.

Few organizations which are helping people in fighting these situations and prevent the preventables.

  1. Roshni – is an hyderabad based NGO which is helping people with mental health issues and it is a member of befrienders worldwide which is an international organisation working recognized by united nations.
  2. Sneha india foundation – This organization provides suicide crisis helpline numbers and provides emotional support to those who are in need.
  3. iCALL – iCALL works under Tata Institute Of Social Sciencesand provides emotional support to those who are suffering from psychological distress.

There are so many other sources too which are available for your support just REACH OUT FOR HELP!!.

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