By- Narayani Gupta
Forensic science is the method of applying techniques which are scientifically proved under investigation by court of law. It involves all branches of science and that are; physics, chemistry, biology, computer science etc. and they are used for different purposes. Scope of Forensic science has also shown tremendous growth for example DNA profiling the biological evidence is the most used for it and it involves saliva, blood, hair, and urine to carry on the process fingerprint analysis also used under forensic techniques.
Seeing to the modern world science have a vital part in law because without its methods criminal cannot be convicted until and unless eyewitness is present. When law agencies collect the evidences after its forensic science plays their role by examining or analysing the pieces of evidence and supplying court the proof against accused and it help judges to judge efficiently and effectively so that they can give punishment to guilty and to give justice to innocent.
Role of forensic science:
Forensic science is derived from Latin word ‘forenses’ which actual means ‘forum.’ It plays crucial character because it clearly gives unique result without manipulation and tells directly that this evidence is proof for the crime committed by the person and it can tell where crime was committed and how. To have forensic science into play forensic scientists have key role and duties. It has diverse types of it like Pathology, Anthropology, Odontology, Toxicology and for it they have different specialised teams. So, it plays significant role by finding the perpetrator and it ease the burden of courts and cases can be solved in faster way then when courts depend upon eyewitness. In some countries legal laws have been made to make it priority like in U.S., Canada, Australia. In entire world including India Forensic laboratories have been increased. In India first initiative for setting up lab for this was in 1878 and till 2020 it was more than 35 have been set up and proper training is given to the instructors there.
FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION: AN APPLICATION OF FORENSIC SCIENCE
This technology helps to know about specific objects from the Trace evidence which have been left by accused at the crime scene. It surrounds fingerprint, handwriting and ballistics and it creates relation between accused with a crime. There are different techniques mentioned under Part V of 2009 National Research Council: 1)- Microscopic hair analysis, 2)-firearms identification,3)-fingerprint analysis, 4)-Questioned document exam, 5)-bite mark comparison.
Sir William Herschel in Indian Civil Service and with him Henry Faulds, a Scottish physician they both first recommended using fingerprint as evidence in identification. In 1906 (Rex vs Castleton)first time fingerprint testimony was presented in international court and over years usage of it became more common and entire world. It is exceptionally reliable and it is based over two main principles
1): The skin over their tips of finger does not change in their lifetime.
2): Two people cannot have same fingerprints.
How this is found? And answer to this question is that it has sweet pores and body oils so experts use chemical powders to make prints which can be seen by human eye easily and then they match with person involved in crime situation anyway.
MICROSCOPIC HAIR ANALYSIS:
It is also one of the major techniques because hair samples are the valuable which can help to find guilty. To decide age, gender it is best method to do so. This is more prevalent in physical contact crimes because human normally shed 100 hair per day, it is common in sexual assault or homicide cases. There is one instrument used to do so which is called comparison microscope and hair from root can be send for test known as Short Tandem Repeat analysis under nuclear DNA testing procedure.
This method plays key role in criminal investigations. The five identifiers of it are: make, model, calibre, manufacturer, and serial number. It can help in giving a variety of evidence and these crime scenes are not limited to situations like a victim have firearms related injury or someone have possession of firearm illegally or illegally manufactured and in this analysis few things are examined and traced that if that weapon is used while shooting during the crime, to find the person with interest in it and to show illicit manufacturing or trafficking network.
Questioned document examination:
It involves in cases which relate to handwritings and it has two types of it 1)- Requested Writing specimens, 2)- Collected writing specimens, in the first one writer being closely checked and in second one consists of writings which are useful prior to investigation for example- cancelled checks, signed receipts, and tax records. It is conducted by forensic document examiner. It is performed with the help of some tools (infrared and ultraviolet light sources electrostatic detection devices and material to perform analytical chemistry and documents which have words or expression which are not visible to naked eye so for that Electrostatic Detection Apparatus is also used. To find ink composition Liquid chromatography is used. IN this method. whole writer’s style, technique of writing is checked with suspects.
BITE MARK STUDY:
Forensic Odontology handles and evaluates dental evidence in legal proceedings. It helps in deciding the relative age by examining teeth standardized pattern. Teeth are the major source of DNA too and crushed tooth can give mitochondrial DNA to find a person. In this study it is recorded, Documented and described size, location, and severity. For this 3D optical surface scanning technique is used. Bite marks can be recorded in crimes likes child abuse, harassment and sexual abuse. Bite marks are classified into two types I.e.- non-human and humanly. In this there is essential element and that is photography to collect evidences. Mechanisms of bite marks are associated with tooth scrape, tooth and tongue pressure.
Forensic science is beneficial for creating social impacts because it is used by law professionals which works for people of country. Forensic identification also the part of it only and there are various more types of methods under Forensic science but these mentioned above are the main ones which comes under forensic identifying suspect and in such Modern Era courts also must rely on various new innovations which helps them to help society or victims of crime more efficiently and in less time. It is predicted that there will be the growth of occupation in Forensic science (14% from 2019 to 2029). In India specially there is need of it where crime offences like Rape, murder according to 2019 annual report of National Crime Records Bureau 88 cases daily are reported. In 2020 there is increase of 7% in comparison to 2018.